31 Summary Table of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells and Functions

Components of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells and Functions

Cell Component Function Present in Prokaryotes Present in Animal Cells Present in Plant Cells
Plasma Membrane Separates cell from external environment;

controls passage of organic molecules, ions, water, oxygen, and wastes into and out of the cell

Yes Yes Yes
Cytoplasm Provides structure to cell; site of many metabolic reactions; medium in which

organelles are found

Yes Yes Yes
Nucleoid Location of DNA Yes No No
Nucleus Cell organelle that houses DNA and directs synthesis of ribosomes and proteins No Yes Yes
Ribosomes Protein synthesis Yes Yes Yes
Mitochondria ATP production/cellular respiration No Yes Yes
Peroxisomes

 

Oxidizes and breaks down fatty acids and

amino acids, and detoxifies poisons

No Yes Yes
Vesicles and

vacuoles

 

Storage and transport; digestive function in

plant cells

No Yes Yes
Centrosome

 

 

Unspecified role in cell division in animal

cells; organizing center of microtubules in

animal cells

No Yes No
Lysosomes

 

Digestion of macromolecules; recycling of worn-out organelles No Yes No
Cell wall

 

 

Protection, structural support and

maintenance of cell shape

Yes, primarily

peptidoglycan in bacteria but not Archaea

No Yes, primarily

cellulose

Chloroplasts Photosynthesis No No Yes
Endoplasmic

reticulum

Modifies proteins and synthesizes lipids No Yes Yes
Golgi apparatus

 

Modifies, sorts, tags, packages, and

distributes lipids and proteins

No Yes Yes
Cytoskeleton

 

Maintains cell’s shape, secures organelles in

specific positions, allows cytoplasm and

vesicles to move within the cell, and enables

unicellular organisms to move independently

Yes Yes Yes
Flagella

 

Cellular locomotion Some Some No, except for some plant sperm.
Cilia

 

Cellular locomotion, movement of particles

along extracellular surface of plasma

membrane, and filtration

No Some No

References

Unless otherwise noted, images on this page are licensed under CC-BY 4.0 by OpenStax.

Text adapted from: OpenStax, Concepts of Biology. OpenStax CNX. May 18, 2016 http://cnx.org/contents/b3c1e1d2-839c-42b0-a314-e119a8aafbdd@9.10

License

Share This Book

Feedback/Errata

Comments are closed.